Optional Chaining

An optional chain is a chain of one or more property accesses and function calls, the first of which begins with the token ?..

Long chains of property accesses in JavaScript can be error-prone, as any of them might evaluate to null or undefined (also known as “nullish” values).

Checking for property existence on each step easily turns into a deeply-nested structure of if-statements.

// Error prone-version, could throw.
const nameLength = db.user.name.length;

// Less error-prone, but harder to read.
let nameLength;
if (db && db.user && db.user.name) {
  nameLength = db.user.name.length;

Using the new optional chaining operator, we can rewrite the above example as follows:

// Still checks for errors and is much more readable.
const nameLength = db?.user?.name?.length;

The ?. operator functions similarly to the . chaining operator, except that instead of causing an error if a reference is nullish (null or undefined), the expression short-circuits with a return value of undefined.

When used with function calls, it returns undefined if the given function does not exist.

let result = someInterface.customMethod?.();

Note: If there is a property with such a name and which is not a function, using ?. will still raise a TypeError exception (x.y is not a function).

Optional callbacks or event handlers

// Written as of ES2019
function doSomething(onContent, onError) {
  try {
    // ... do something with the data
  } catch (err) {
    if (onError) {
      // Testing if onError really exists
// Using optional chaining with function calls
function doSomething(onContent, onError) {
  try {
    // ... do something with the data
  } catch (err) {
    // no exception if onError is undefined

Optional chaining with expressions

let nestedProp = obj?.['prop' + 'Name'];

Optional chaining with an array

let arrayItem = arr?.[42];

Optional chaining is forbidden in write contexts such as a?.b = c. Optional deletion as in: delete a ?.b is supported.

Let's see what babel transpiler does with this Optional chaining syntax

const nameLength = db?.user;

It transpile into

var _db;

var nameLength = (_db = db) === null || _db === void 0 ? void 0 : _db.user;

If you don't know what void 0 does, it evaluates the given expression and then returns undefined.


obj?.prop; // Object
obj?.[expr]; // Expressions
arr?.[index]; // Array
func?.(args); // Function calls


  1. V8
  2. tc39
  3. MDN

Thanks for reading!

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